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States Rights?

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29 minutes ago, DieHardBrownsFan said:

Nullification, in United States constitutional history, is a legal theory that a state has the right to nullify, or invalidate, any federal law which that state has deemed unconstitutional. The theory of nullification has never been legally upheld by federal courts.[1]

Like Reagan used to say - the States formed the Federal Government, not the other way around.

Thanks for the explicit law, Die, but we both know a State usurping the authority of the Federal Government ain't even going to happen.  And I hate to use the word, "Never".

Sounds like a legal Catch-22 to me.

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Jeff Sessions is a scumbag!
 

Republicans claim "states rights! leave the government out of my life!" 
but will kow tow to this PoS... Shmuck him!

Congress needs to step up and change the federal laws to reflect the views of the people that put them into office!

64% of Americans support pot legalization. but this fukwit wants to go after legal businesses?? 

I hope a piano falls from the sky and lands on Sessions and we can get a new AG..

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1 minute ago, DieHardBrownsFan said:

Don't bogart that joint pot head!

 

Oh wow you called me a pot head!!! What ever shall I do?

Sorry i don't kow tow to out of touch nimrods like Jeff Sessions.. Must be nice being a sheep..

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obamao rules that allowed states to allow pot companies...

bah. Sessions just undid obaMao, your commie sombeitch hero, rules.

Let Federal Law ascertain the legitimacy of pot being as legal as alcohol, and

it's all fine. Leftist states are out of control.

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10 minutes ago, calfoxwc said:

obamao rules that allowed states to allow pot companies...

bah. Sessions just undid obaMao, your commie sombeitch hero, rules.

Let Federal Law ascertain the legitimacy of pot being as legal as alcohol, and

it's all fine. Leftist states are out of control.

Gimmie a Shmucking break with this "everything Obama did is bad" horseshit!

Why waste money and resources on legal pot shops and distributors when there are more problems in this country? 

I would love for the federal laws to be changed.. Congress needs to stop dragging their feet on this.. Shmucking incompetent Socksuckers!

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I hope they shut down and arrest everyone involved in this illegal operation.  MAGA

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2 minutes ago, DieHardBrownsFan said:

I hope they shut down and arrest everyone involved in this illegal operation.  MAGA

Yeah let's shut down legal businesses and put more people out on the street...
That will 'Make America Great Again...'
Instead of going after black market dealers and suppliers..

Might as well shut down pill farms too if we're gonna make a big fukin spectacle out of pot..

 

 

What a fukin joke...

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14 minutes ago, domcucch1994 said:

You republicans claim states rights, but only when it fits your agenda..

you lefties cry about mmgw, but it's your pot companies that are far more dangerous to mmgw than our cows farting.

Just because it's the same subject and the same wailing:

1. Pot smoking goes into the air. In a bar, you don't absorb fumes from alcohol. You DO breathe in pot smoke.

2. So, booze - NO SMOKE. Pot...BIGTIME SMOKE. ya?

3. Therefore, going to a bar as a college student, have a beer, but some dumb butts are smoking pot, you don't care...

     Until you fail the drug test when you go to get an important job to start your career.

4. Booze- no residual consequences for others breathing, pot - residual consequences for others breathing.

5. In the 60s, marijuana had a THC (the active ingredient that gets people high) level of 7 percent to 14 percent. The pot on the streets today has a THC level of 14 percent to 27 percent. That's the difference between drinking a six pack of beer and a six pack of whiskey. It is not the same thing.

6. https://www.livescience.com/42738-marijuana-vs-alcohol-health-effects.html

For marijuana, much of the concern is with young people who use the drug, because the drug interferes with the development of the brain while it is still maturing, Baler said. [10 Facts Every Parent Should Know About Their Teen's Brain]

Therefore, parents who drink a lot around their young kids, don't damage their kid's physical growth. Therefore, parents who smoke a lot of pot around their young kids....do.

7. https://www.livescience.com/24558-marijuana-effects.html

"In some cases, reported side effects of THC include elation, anxiety, tachycardia, short-term memory recall issues, sedation, relaxation, pain-relief and many more," said A.J. Fabrizio, a marijuana chemistry expert at Terra Tech Corp, a California agricultural company focused on local farming and medical cannabis.

Other effects, according to the NIH, include:

  • Feelings of panic and fear (paranoia)
  • Hallucinations
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Decreased ability to perform tasks that require coordination
  • Decreased interest in completing tasks

When coming down from the high, users may feel depressed or extremely tired. While marijuana use produces a mellow experience (users are sometimes referred to as "stoners") for some, it can heighten agitation, anxiety, insomnia and irritability, according to the NIH.

When marijuana use begins in the teen years, it can have a significant impact on brain development, including decreased brain activity, fewer neural fibers in certain areas and a smaller than average hippocampus, which controls learning and memory functions.

According to a 2014 Northwestern Medicine study of teen marijuana users, memory-related structures in the brain appeared to shrink, a possible signs of a decrease in neurons. These abnormalities remained two years after the teen stopped using marijuana, indicating that the drug has long-term effects and look similar to brains of schizophrenics. Those who started using marijuana after 21 generally do not experience the same type of brain abnormalities as those who started using the drug earlier.

Long-term users report that they sometimes have trouble thinking clearly, organizing their thoughts, multitasking and remembering things. Sustained marijuana use can also slow reaction times in some individuals.

Another study by the University of Montreal published in the journal Development and Psychopathology in 2016 found similar results after researching almost 300 students. Those that started smoking around age 14 did worse on some cognitive tests than non-smokers. The study found that pot smokers also have a higher school dropout rate. Those that waited to start around age 17 did not seem to have the same impairments. 

  8. 

A 2017 study by the Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia found that those who used marijuana were 26 percent more likely to have a stroke than those who did not use marijuana. Those studied were also 10 percent more likely to have developed heart failure.

Marijuana can also raise heart rate by 20 percent to 100 percent shortly after smoking and the effect can last up to three hours, according to NIDA. Marijuana also can reduce sperm production in men and disrupts a woman's menstrual cycle, according to NIDA.

9. Therefore, liberal knee jerkie emotional outbursts can be attributed , in part, to pot smoking.

10, Last, but not least - is the flaming hypocrisy of those liberal wingnuts that want to legalize pot smoking. Now, all liberals whine about wanting pot legalized. These are the same wingnuts who are frightened that pollution and cows farting is destroying our planet with mmgw.

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/jun/20/cannabis-climate-change-fossil-fuels

https://www.eenews.net/stories/1060036287

GET THIS:

   the algore hippie dippie sticks want us to lower our home temps, stop running gas engines, and pay for cows farting and driving our cars. YET...

http://grist.org/living/everything-you-need-to-know-about-pots-environmental-impact/

  • Haha 1

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24 minutes ago, calfoxwc said:

you lefties cry about mmgw, but it's your pot companies that are far more dangerous to mmgw than our cows farting.

Just because it's the same subject and the same wailing:

1. Pot smoking goes into the air. In a bar, you don't absorb fumes from alcohol. You DO breathe in pot smoke.

2. So, booze - NO SMOKE. Pot...BIGTIME SMOKE. ya?

3. Therefore, going to a bar as a college student, have a beer, but some dumb butts are smoking pot, you don't care...

     Until you fail the drug test when you go to get an important job to start your career.

4. Booze- no residual consequences for others breathing, pot - residual consequences for others breathing.

5. In the 60s, marijuana had a THC (the active ingredient that gets people high) level of 7 percent to 14 percent. The pot on the streets today has a THC level of 14 percent to 27 percent. That's the difference between drinking a six pack of beer and a six pack of whiskey. It is not the same thing.

6. https://www.livescience.com/42738-marijuana-vs-alcohol-health-effects.html

For marijuana, much of the concern is with young people who use the drug, because the drug interferes with the development of the brain while it is still maturing, Baler said. [10 Facts Every Parent Should Know About Their Teen's Brain]

Therefore, parents who drink a lot around their young kids, don't damage their kid's physical growth. Therefore, parents who smoke a lot of pot around their young kids....do.

7. https://www.livescience.com/24558-marijuana-effects.html

"In some cases, reported side effects of THC include elation, anxiety, tachycardia, short-term memory recall issues, sedation, relaxation, pain-relief and many more," said A.J. Fabrizio, a marijuana chemistry expert at Terra Tech Corp, a California agricultural company focused on local farming and medical cannabis.

Other effects, according to the NIH, include:

  • Feelings of panic and fear (paranoia)
  • Hallucinations
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Decreased ability to perform tasks that require coordination
  • Decreased interest in completing tasks

When coming down from the high, users may feel depressed or extremely tired. While marijuana use produces a mellow experience (users are sometimes referred to as "stoners") for some, it can heighten agitation, anxiety, insomnia and irritability, according to the NIH.

When marijuana use begins in the teen years, it can have a significant impact on brain development, including decreased brain activity, fewer neural fibers in certain areas and a smaller than average hippocampus, which controls learning and memory functions.

According to a 2014 Northwestern Medicine study of teen marijuana users, memory-related structures in the brain appeared to shrink, a possible signs of a decrease in neurons. These abnormalities remained two years after the teen stopped using marijuana, indicating that the drug has long-term effects and look similar to brains of schizophrenics. Those who started using marijuana after 21 generally do not experience the same type of brain abnormalities as those who started using the drug earlier.

Long-term users report that they sometimes have trouble thinking clearly, organizing their thoughts, multitasking and remembering things. Sustained marijuana use can also slow reaction times in some individuals.

Another study by the University of Montreal published in the journal Development and Psychopathology in 2016 found similar results after researching almost 300 students. Those that started smoking around age 14 did worse on some cognitive tests than non-smokers. The study found that pot smokers also have a higher school dropout rate. Those that waited to start around age 17 did not seem to have the same impairments. 

  8. 

A 2017 study by the Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia found that those who used marijuana were 26 percent more likely to have a stroke than those who did not use marijuana. Those studied were also 10 percent more likely to have developed heart failure.

Marijuana can also raise heart rate by 20 percent to 100 percent shortly after smoking and the effect can last up to three hours, according to NIDA. Marijuana also can reduce sperm production in men and disrupts a woman's menstrual cycle, according to NIDA.

9. Therefore, liberal knee jerkie emotional outbursts can be attributed , in part, to pot smoking.

10, Last, but not least - is the flaming hypocrisy of those liberal wingnuts that want to legalize pot smoking. Now, all liberals whine about wanting pot legalized. These are the same wingnuts who are frightened that pollution and cows farting is destroying our planet with mmgw.

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/jun/20/cannabis-climate-change-fossil-fuels

https://www.eenews.net/stories/1060036287

GET THIS:

   the algore hippie dippie sticks want us to lower our home temps, stop running gas engines, and pay for cows farting and driving our cars. YET...

http://grist.org/living/everything-you-need-to-know-about-pots-environmental-impact/

First off. I am not a 'leftie' I like to think of myself as somewhere in the middle..

And of course pot isn't 100% safe..  Just like alcohol..

But you look at the medicinal benefits.. why go after it?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_cannabis#Medical_uses

Drunk driving fatalities.. over 10,000 in 2015

You proclaim that there is not smoke from booze.. Congratulations, captain obvious!

Here's a newsflash for you.. Pot comes in many forms. You can vaporize it, eat it.
They even have pot that is higher in CBD and lower in THC so you don't get totally blitzed..

But if sessions wants to go after pot.. Might as well go after our beloved alcohol as well... because prohibition has worked in the past right?

 

Drinking too much can harm your health. Excessive alcohol use led to approximately 88,000 deaths and 2.5 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) each year in the United States from 2006 – 2010, shortening the lives of those who died by an average of 30 years.1,2 Further, excessive drinking was responsible for 1 in 10 deaths among working-age adults aged 20-64 years. The economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in 2010 were estimated at $249 billion, or $2.05 a drink.3

Short-Term Health Risks

Excessive alcohol use has immediate effects that increase the risk of many harmful health conditions. These are most often the result of binge drinking and include the following:

  • Injuries, such as motor vehicle crashes, falls, drownings, and burns.6,7
  • Violence, including homicide, suicide, sexual assault, and intimate partner violence.6-10
  • Alcohol poisoning, a medical emergency that results from high blood alcohol levels.11
  • Risky sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex or sex with multiple partners. These behaviors can result in unintended pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV.12,13
  • Miscarriage and stillbirth or fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) among pregnant women.6,12,14,15

Long-Term Health Risks

Over time, excessive alcohol use can lead to the development of chronic diseases and other serious problems including:

  • High blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, liver disease, and digestive problems.6,16
  • Cancer of the breast, mouth, throat, esophagus, liver, and colon.6,17
  • Learning and memory problems, including dementia and poor school performance.6,18
  • Mental health problems, including depression and anxiety.6,19
  • Social problems, including lost productivity, family problems, and unemployment.6,20,21
  • Alcohol dependence, or alcoholism.5

By not drinking too much, you can reduce the risk of these short- and long-term health risks.

 

Check out this read on drunk driving fatalities.. 
https://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/impaired_driving/impaired-drv_factsheet.html

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How does marijuana affect the brain?

Marijuana has both short-and long-term effects on the brain.

Image of a cross section of the brain with marked areas that are affected by THC.THC acts on numerous areas in the brain (in yellow).
Image by NIDA

Short-Term Effects

When a person smokes marijuana, THC quickly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream. The blood carries the chemical to the brain and other organs throughout the body. The body absorbs THC more slowly when the person eats or drinks it. In that case, they generally feel the effects after 30 minutes to 1 hour.

THC acts on specific brain cell receptors that ordinarily react to natural THC-like chemicals. These natural chemicals play a role in normal brain development and function.

Marijuana overactivates parts of the brain that contain the highest number of these receptors. This causes the "high" that people feel. Other effects include:

  • altered senses (for example, seeing brighter colors)
  • altered sense of time
  • changes in mood
  • impaired body movement
  • difficulty with thinking and problem-solving
  • impaired memory
  • hallucinations (when taken in high doses)
  • delusions (when taken in high doses)
  • psychosis (when taken in high doses)

 

Long-Term Effects

Marijuana also affects brain development. When people begin using marijuana as teenagers, the drug may impair thinking, memory, and learning functions and affect how the brain builds connections between the areas necessary for these functions. Researchers are still studying how long marijuana's effects last and whether some changes may be permanent.

For example, a study from New Zealand conducted in part by researchers at Duke University showed that people who started smoking marijuana heavily in their teens and had an ongoing marijuana use disorder lost an average of 8 IQ points between ages 13 and 38. The lost mental abilities didn't fully return in those who quit marijuana as adults. Those who started smoking marijuana as adults didn't show notable IQ declines.5

In another recent study on twins, those who used marijuana showed a significant decline in general knowledge and in verbal ability (equivalent to 4 IQ points) between the preteen years and early adulthood, but no predictable difference was found between twins when one used marijuana and the other didn't. This suggests that the IQ decline in marijuana users may be caused by something other than marijuana, such as shared familial factors (e.g., genetics, family environment).6 NIDA’s Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, a major longitudinal study, is tracking a large sample of young Americans from late childhood to early adulthood to help clarify how and to what extent marijuana and other substances, alone and in combination, affect adolescent brain development. Read more about the ABCD study on our Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD Study)webpage.

A Rise in Marijuana’s THC Levels

The amount of THC in marijuana has been increasing steadily over the past few decades.7 For a person who's new to marijuana use, this may mean exposure to higher THC levels with a greater chance of a harmful reaction. Higher THC levels may explain the rise in emergency room visits involving marijuana use.

The popularity of edibles also increases the chance of harmful reactions. Edibles take longer to digest and produce a high. Therefore, people may consume more to feel the effects faster, leading to dangerous results.

Higher THC levels may also mean a greater risk for addiction if people are regularly exposing themselves to high doses.

What are the other health effects of marijuana?

Marijuana use may have a wide range of effects, both physical and mental.

Physical Effects

  • Breathing problems. Marijuana smoke irritates the lungs, and people who smoke marijuana frequently can have the same breathing problems as those who smoke tobacco. These problems include daily cough and phlegm, more frequent lung illness, and a higher risk of lung infections. Researchers so far haven't found a higher risk for lung cancer in people who smoke marijuana.8
  • Increased heart rate. Marijuana raises heart rate for up to 3 hours after smoking. This effect may increase the chance of heart attack. Older people and those with heart problems may be at higher risk.
  • Problems with child development during and after pregnancy. Marijuana use during pregnancy is linked to lower birth weight9 and increased risk of both brain and behavioral problems in babies. If a pregnant woman uses marijuana, the drug may affect certain developing parts of the fetus's brain. Children exposed to marijuana in the womb have an increased risk of problems with attention,10memory, and problem-solving compared to unexposed children.11 Some research also suggests that moderate amounts of THC are excreted into the breast milk of nursing mothers.12 With regular use, THC can reach amounts in breast milk that could affect the baby's developing brain. More research is needed. Read our Marijuana Research Report for more information about marijuana and pregnancy.
  • Intense Nausea and Vomiting. Regular, long-term marijuana use can lead to some people to develop Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. This causes users to experience regular cycles of severe nausea, vomiting, and dehydration, sometimes requiring emergency medical attention.13
Silhouette of a seated young male, hunched over with his head resting in his hand.Photo by ©iStock/Adrian Hillman

Mental Effects

Long-term marijuana use has been linked to mental illness in some people, such as:

  • temporary hallucinations
  • temporary paranoia
  • worsening symptoms in patients with schizophrenia—a severe mental disorder with symptoms such as hallucinations, paranoia, and disorganized thinking

Marijuana use has also been linked to other mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts among teens. However, study findings have been mixed.

Are there effects of inhaling secondhand marijuana smoke?

Failing a Drug Test?

While it's possible to fail a drug test after inhaling secondhand marijuana smoke, it's unlikely. Studies show that very little THC is released in the air when a person exhales. Research findings suggest that, unless people are in an enclosed room, breathing in lots of smoke for hours at close range, they aren't likely to fail a drug test.14,15 Even if some THC was found in the blood, it wouldn't be enough to fail a test.

Getting high from passive exposure?

Similarly, it's unlikely that secondhand marijuana smoke would give nonsmoking people in a confined space a high from passive exposure. Studies have shown that people who don't use marijuana report only mild effects of the drug from a nearby smoker, under extreme conditions (breathing in lots of marijuana smoke for hours in an enclosed room).16

Other Health Effects?

More research is needed to know if secondhand marijuana smoke has similar health risks as secondhand tobacco smoke. A recent study on rats suggests that secondhand marijuana smoke can do as much damage to the heart and blood vessels as secondhand tobacco smoke.19 But researchers haven't fully explored the effect of secondhand marijuana smoke on humans. What they do know is that the toxins and tar found in marijuana smoke could affect vulnerable people, such as children or people with asthma.

How Does Marijuana Affect a Person's Life?

Compared to those who don't use marijuana, those who frequently use large amounts report the following:

  • lower life satisfaction
  • poorer mental health
  • poorer physical health
  • more relationship problems

People also report less academic and career success. For example, marijuana use is linked to a higher likelihood of dropping out of school.17 It's also linked to more job absences, accidents, and injuries.18

Is marijuana a gateway drug?

Use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are likely to come before use of other drugs.20,21 Animal studies have shown that early exposure to addictive substances, including THC, may change how the brain responds to other drugs. For example, when rodents are repeatedly exposed to THC when they're young, they later show an enhanced response to other addictive substances—such as morphine or nicotine—in the areas of the brain that control reward, and they're more likely to show addiction-like behaviors.22,23

Although these findings support the idea of marijuana as a "gateway drug," the majority of people who use marijuana don't go on to use other "harder" drugs. It's also important to note that other factors besides biological mechanisms, such as a person’s social environment, are also critical in a person’s risk for drug use and addiction. Read more about marijuana as a gateway drug in our Marijuana Research Report.

Can a person overdose on marijuana?

An overdose occurs when a person uses enough of the drug to produce life-threatening symptoms or death. There are no reports of teens or adults dying from marijuana alone. However, some people who use marijuana can feel some very uncomfortable side effects, especially when using marijuana products with high THC levels. People have reported symptoms such as anxiety and paranoia, and in rare cases, an extreme psychotic reaction (which can include delusions and hallucinations) that can lead them to seek treatment in an emergency room.

While a psychotic reaction can occur following any method of use, emergency room responders have seen an increasing number of cases involving marijuana edibles. Some people (especially preteens and teens) who know very little about edibles don't realize that it takes longer for the body to feel marijuana’s effects when eaten rather than smoked. So they consume more of the edible, trying to get high faster or thinking they haven't taken enough. In addition, some babies and toddlers have been seriously ill after ingesting marijuana or marijuana edibles left around the house.

Is marijuana addictive?

Marijuana use can lead to the development of a substance use disorder, a medical illness in which the person is unable to stop using even though it's causing health and social problems in their life. Severe substance use disorders are also known as addiction. Research suggests that between 9 and 30 percent of those who use marijuana may develop some degree of marijuana use disorder.24 People who begin using marijuana before age 18 are four to seven times more likely than adults to develop a marijuana use disorder.25

Many people who use marijuana long term and are trying to quit report mild withdrawal symptoms that make quitting difficult. These include:

  • grouchiness
  • sleeplessness
  • decreased appetite
  • anxiety
  • cravings

What treatments are available for marijuana use disorder?

No medications are currently available to treat marijuana use disorder, but behavioral support has been shown to be effective. Examples include therapy and motivational incentives (providing rewards to patients who remain drug-free). Continuing research may lead to new medications that help ease withdrawal symptoms, block the effects of marijuana, and prevent relapse.

Points to Remember

  • Marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica plant.
  • The plant contains the mind-altering chemical THC and other related compounds.
  • People use marijuana by smoking, eating, drinking, or inhaling it.
  • Smoking and vaping THC-rich extracts from the marijuana plant (a practice called dabbing) is on the rise.
  • THC overactivates certain brain cell receptors, resulting in effects such as:
    • altered senses
    • changes in mood
    • impaired body movement
    • difficulty with thinking and problem-solving
    • impaired memory and learning
  • Marijuana use can have a wide range of health effects, including:
    • hallucinations and paranoia
    • breathing problems
    • possible harm to a fetus's brain in pregnant women
  • The amount of THC in marijuana has been increasing steadily in recent decades, creating more harmful effects in some people.
  • It's unlikely that a person will fail a drug test or get high from passive exposure by inhaling secondhand marijuana smoke.
  • There aren’t any reports of teens and adults dying from using marijuana alone, but marijuana use can cause some very uncomfortable side effects, such as anxiety and paranoia and, in rare cases, extreme psychotic reactions.
  • Marijuana use can lead to a substance use disorder, which can develop into an addiction in severe cases.
  • No medications are currently available to treat marijuana use disorder, but behavioral support can be effective.

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2 minutes ago, DieHardBrownsFan said:

How does marijuana affect the brain?

Marijuana has both short-and long-term effects on the brain.

Image of a cross section of the brain with marked areas that are affected by THC.THC acts on numerous areas in the brain (in yellow).
Image by NIDA

Short-Term Effects

When a person smokes marijuana, THC quickly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream. The blood carries the chemical to the brain and other organs throughout the body. The body absorbs THC more slowly when the person eats or drinks it. In that case, they generally feel the effects after 30 minutes to 1 hour.

THC acts on specific brain cell receptors that ordinarily react to natural THC-like chemicals. These natural chemicals play a role in normal brain development and function.

Marijuana overactivates parts of the brain that contain the highest number of these receptors. This causes the "high" that people feel. Other effects include:

  • altered senses (for example, seeing brighter colors)
  • altered sense of time
  • changes in mood
  • impaired body movement
  • difficulty with thinking and problem-solving
  • impaired memory
  • hallucinations (when taken in high doses)
  • delusions (when taken in high doses)
  • psychosis (when taken in high doses)

 

Long-Term Effects

Marijuana also affects brain development. When people begin using marijuana as teenagers, the drug may impair thinking, memory, and learning functions and affect how the brain builds connections between the areas necessary for these functions. Researchers are still studying how long marijuana's effects last and whether some changes may be permanent.

For example, a study from New Zealand conducted in part by researchers at Duke University showed that people who started smoking marijuana heavily in their teens and had an ongoing marijuana use disorder lost an average of 8 IQ points between ages 13 and 38. The lost mental abilities didn't fully return in those who quit marijuana as adults. Those who started smoking marijuana as adults didn't show notable IQ declines.5

In another recent study on twins, those who used marijuana showed a significant decline in general knowledge and in verbal ability (equivalent to 4 IQ points) between the preteen years and early adulthood, but no predictable difference was found between twins when one used marijuana and the other didn't. This suggests that the IQ decline in marijuana users may be caused by something other than marijuana, such as shared familial factors (e.g., genetics, family environment).6 NIDA’s Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, a major longitudinal study, is tracking a large sample of young Americans from late childhood to early adulthood to help clarify how and to what extent marijuana and other substances, alone and in combination, affect adolescent brain development. Read more about the ABCD study on our Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD Study)webpage.

A Rise in Marijuana’s THC Levels

The amount of THC in marijuana has been increasing steadily over the past few decades.7 For a person who's new to marijuana use, this may mean exposure to higher THC levels with a greater chance of a harmful reaction. Higher THC levels may explain the rise in emergency room visits involving marijuana use.

The popularity of edibles also increases the chance of harmful reactions. Edibles take longer to digest and produce a high. Therefore, people may consume more to feel the effects faster, leading to dangerous results.

Higher THC levels may also mean a greater risk for addiction if people are regularly exposing themselves to high doses.

What are the other health effects of marijuana?

Marijuana use may have a wide range of effects, both physical and mental.

Physical Effects

  • Breathing problems. Marijuana smoke irritates the lungs, and people who smoke marijuana frequently can have the same breathing problems as those who smoke tobacco. These problems include daily cough and phlegm, more frequent lung illness, and a higher risk of lung infections. Researchers so far haven't found a higher risk for lung cancer in people who smoke marijuana.8
  • Increased heart rate. Marijuana raises heart rate for up to 3 hours after smoking. This effect may increase the chance of heart attack. Older people and those with heart problems may be at higher risk.
  • Problems with child development during and after pregnancy. Marijuana use during pregnancy is linked to lower birth weight9 and increased risk of both brain and behavioral problems in babies. If a pregnant woman uses marijuana, the drug may affect certain developing parts of the fetus's brain. Children exposed to marijuana in the womb have an increased risk of problems with attention,10memory, and problem-solving compared to unexposed children.11 Some research also suggests that moderate amounts of THC are excreted into the breast milk of nursing mothers.12 With regular use, THC can reach amounts in breast milk that could affect the baby's developing brain. More research is needed. Read our Marijuana Research Report for more information about marijuana and pregnancy.
  • Intense Nausea and Vomiting. Regular, long-term marijuana use can lead to some people to develop Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. This causes users to experience regular cycles of severe nausea, vomiting, and dehydration, sometimes requiring emergency medical attention.13
Silhouette of a seated young male, hunched over with his head resting in his hand.Photo by ©iStock/Adrian Hillman

Mental Effects

Long-term marijuana use has been linked to mental illness in some people, such as:

  • temporary hallucinations
  • temporary paranoia
  • worsening symptoms in patients with schizophrenia—a severe mental disorder with symptoms such as hallucinations, paranoia, and disorganized thinking

Marijuana use has also been linked to other mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts among teens. However, study findings have been mixed.

Are there effects of inhaling secondhand marijuana smoke?

Failing a Drug Test?

While it's possible to fail a drug test after inhaling secondhand marijuana smoke, it's unlikely. Studies show that very little THC is released in the air when a person exhales. Research findings suggest that, unless people are in an enclosed room, breathing in lots of smoke for hours at close range, they aren't likely to fail a drug test.14,15 Even if some THC was found in the blood, it wouldn't be enough to fail a test.

Getting high from passive exposure?

Similarly, it's unlikely that secondhand marijuana smoke would give nonsmoking people in a confined space a high from passive exposure. Studies have shown that people who don't use marijuana report only mild effects of the drug from a nearby smoker, under extreme conditions (breathing in lots of marijuana smoke for hours in an enclosed room).16

Other Health Effects?

More research is needed to know if secondhand marijuana smoke has similar health risks as secondhand tobacco smoke. A recent study on rats suggests that secondhand marijuana smoke can do as much damage to the heart and blood vessels as secondhand tobacco smoke.19 But researchers haven't fully explored the effect of secondhand marijuana smoke on humans. What they do know is that the toxins and tar found in marijuana smoke could affect vulnerable people, such as children or people with asthma.

How Does Marijuana Affect a Person's Life?

Compared to those who don't use marijuana, those who frequently use large amounts report the following:

  • lower life satisfaction
  • poorer mental health
  • poorer physical health
  • more relationship problems

People also report less academic and career success. For example, marijuana use is linked to a higher likelihood of dropping out of school.17 It's also linked to more job absences, accidents, and injuries.18

Is marijuana a gateway drug?

Use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are likely to come before use of other drugs.20,21 Animal studies have shown that early exposure to addictive substances, including THC, may change how the brain responds to other drugs. For example, when rodents are repeatedly exposed to THC when they're young, they later show an enhanced response to other addictive substances—such as morphine or nicotine—in the areas of the brain that control reward, and they're more likely to show addiction-like behaviors.22,23

Although these findings support the idea of marijuana as a "gateway drug," the majority of people who use marijuana don't go on to use other "harder" drugs. It's also important to note that other factors besides biological mechanisms, such as a person’s social environment, are also critical in a person’s risk for drug use and addiction. Read more about marijuana as a gateway drug in our Marijuana Research Report.

Can a person overdose on marijuana?

An overdose occurs when a person uses enough of the drug to produce life-threatening symptoms or death. There are no reports of teens or adults dying from marijuana alone. However, some people who use marijuana can feel some very uncomfortable side effects, especially when using marijuana products with high THC levels. People have reported symptoms such as anxiety and paranoia, and in rare cases, an extreme psychotic reaction (which can include delusions and hallucinations) that can lead them to seek treatment in an emergency room.

While a psychotic reaction can occur following any method of use, emergency room responders have seen an increasing number of cases involving marijuana edibles. Some people (especially preteens and teens) who know very little about edibles don't realize that it takes longer for the body to feel marijuana’s effects when eaten rather than smoked. So they consume more of the edible, trying to get high faster or thinking they haven't taken enough. In addition, some babies and toddlers have been seriously ill after ingesting marijuana or marijuana edibles left around the house.

Is marijuana addictive?

Marijuana use can lead to the development of a substance use disorder, a medical illness in which the person is unable to stop using even though it's causing health and social problems in their life. Severe substance use disorders are also known as addiction. Research suggests that between 9 and 30 percent of those who use marijuana may develop some degree of marijuana use disorder.24 People who begin using marijuana before age 18 are four to seven times more likely than adults to develop a marijuana use disorder.25

Many people who use marijuana long term and are trying to quit report mild withdrawal symptoms that make quitting difficult. These include:

  • grouchiness
  • sleeplessness
  • decreased appetite
  • anxiety
  • cravings

What treatments are available for marijuana use disorder?

No medications are currently available to treat marijuana use disorder, but behavioral support has been shown to be effective. Examples include therapy and motivational incentives (providing rewards to patients who remain drug-free). Continuing research may lead to new medications that help ease withdrawal symptoms, block the effects of marijuana, and prevent relapse.

Points to Remember

  • Marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica plant.
  • The plant contains the mind-altering chemical THC and other related compounds.
  • People use marijuana by smoking, eating, drinking, or inhaling it.
  • Smoking and vaping THC-rich extracts from the marijuana plant (a practice called dabbing) is on the rise.
  • THC overactivates certain brain cell receptors, resulting in effects such as:
    • altered senses
    • changes in mood
    • impaired body movement
    • difficulty with thinking and problem-solving
    • impaired memory and learning
  • Marijuana use can have a wide range of health effects, including:
    • hallucinations and paranoia
    • breathing problems
    • possible harm to a fetus's brain in pregnant women
  • The amount of THC in marijuana has been increasing steadily in recent decades, creating more harmful effects in some people.
  • It's unlikely that a person will fail a drug test or get high from passive exposure by inhaling secondhand marijuana smoke.
  • There aren’t any reports of teens and adults dying from using marijuana alone, but marijuana use can cause some very uncomfortable side effects, such as anxiety and paranoia and, in rare cases, extreme psychotic reactions.
  • Marijuana use can lead to a substance use disorder, which can develop into an addiction in severe cases.
  • No medications are currently available to treat marijuana use disorder, but behavioral support can be effective.

Show me where potheads overdosed from smoking, eating, or vaping too much of it? 

Oh that's right... you can't!
 

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for human  woodpeckers. They have petrified brain cells from impacts 

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6 hours ago, MLD Woody said:

Alcohol though, perfectly fine.......

Hasn't let DieHard down yet...

giphy.gif

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"Weed is *hiccup* bad for you! It's *hiccup* destroying our youth!"

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Just now, MLD Woody said:

"Weed is *hiccup* bad for you! It's *hiccup* destroying our youth!"

Drunks are stupid. Potheads are stupid. Pillbillies are stupid. Crackheads are stupid.

WSS

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The youth is already destroyed.  Our country is doomed.

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but slowly and surely, some of the emoting stupid youth are being put into Real American rehab.

Downy Woodpecker Rehab | - The Urban Nature Enthusiast

Jul 10, 2014 - I called the Wildlife Rescue refuge out at Burnaby Lake again yesterday to check in on our little downy patient. The news is still good. She's lively, off medication and flying around in a large enclosure. They are keeping her a while longer so she can build up her strength and agility and not be easy prey…

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